J. M. Charcot demonstrating hysteria in a patient, 1887. (A painting by by André Brouillet)

Hysteria was recognised as a medical condition long before the nineteenth-century. Despite its prevalence, however, the understanding of its exact aetiology altered over time and was never clearly defined, since different medical authorities at different times suggested varying causes for the manifestation of the disease. Yet, Elaine Showalter delineated the last thirty years of the nineteenth-century as ‘the golden age of hysteria’ in her remarkable book The Female Malady: Women, Madness and English Culture, 1830–1980, due to the fact that the diagnosis of hysteria was tremendously rife from the 1870s onwards.

The concept of gender has always played a predominant…


Fraser Institute

The notion of identity is commonly contested in the disciplines of sociology and psychology and due to its subjective nature there is no single definition of what constitutes identity, but rather varying theories relating to its formation.

One such theory states that identity is not a result of personal choice or agency, but is a product of the processes of socialisation and is therefore, due to its roots in the very formation of our personalities, fixed and unchanging. Another seemingly opposing theory describes the development of identity as a process resulting from multiple human interactions. …


Florian Wizorek

Religion can be considered as the most important element of humans’ life in the Middle Ages because the workings of society were surrounded by rituals and religious practices. Therefore, especially in the Eastern culture, religious buildings were closely tied to the State. Hagia Sophia can be viewed as the epitome of this tradition due to the fact that it was the central place of worship in which official ceremonies also took place. The cathedral itself is a visual statement, which unites different cultures and religions and which therefore ties its past to its present.

It is no surprise that we…


Implicit attitudes are delineated as ‘introspectively unidentified (or inaccurately identified) traces of past experience that mediate favourable or unfavourable feeling, thought, or action toward a social object’[1]. This definition underlines that implicit attitudes occur irrespective of one’s awareness. For instance, say Fred has grown in an environment in which he has frequently been introduced to homophobic views. Although Fred may consciously be holding highly positive views of gay people, he may also be implicitly possessing an association between homosexuality and badness. Because Fred’s implicit attitude is irrespective of his self-report, it can be indirectly measured on the basis of his…


by Chris Panatier

It is necessary to begin by noting that the term ‘state of nature’ does not appear in the Leviathan, Hobbes has chosen to make use of a different term to refer to the same concept, namely ‘the natural condition of mankind’[1]. However, here I will refer to both concepts as the state of nature in order to avoid conceptual disorientation.

The significance of the state of nature cannot be understated because it constitutes the basis of both Hobbes and Locke’s theories of political authority and is reminiscent of their reflections on such notions as equality, liberty, morality and so on…


Francis Fukuyama wrote in The End of History? that ‘the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind’s ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government’[1]. In today’s political world, Fukuyama’s statement is, to an extent, controversial with regards to the number of non-democratic regimes. Some political scientists therefore examined the underlying reasons for the ongoing diversity amongst regimes. A considerable part of those studies was concerned with the underlying reasons for authoritarian regime stability in the Arab World. Others examined the factors that can explain the breakdown…


The state is a very distinct and complicated institutional phenomenon, which occurs in a political economyand is defined by numerous alternative approaches. In order to clarify the conceptual and methodological issues, as well as to provide a clear set of arguments and analysis, I find it necessary to begin this essay by underlining the polarity of the representations of the state in Marxist and Liberalist approaches. Furthermore, this essay will investigate whether or not the state always represents a particular economic interest by analysing these two approaches in relation to the concept of state and economics. …

Zeynep Kesici

Currently studying Social Policy. Researcher. Avid reader. Passionate writer. Interested in society and nature.

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